Going Deeper with Deep Knowledge Tracing


Over the last couple of decades, there have been a large variety of approaches towards modeling student knowledge within intelligent tutoring systems. With the booming development of deep learning and large scale artificial neural networks, there have been empirical successes in a number of machine learning and data mining applications, including student knowledge modeling. Deep Knowledge Tracing (DKT), a pioneer algorithm that utilizes recurrent neural networks to model student learning, reports substantial improvements in prediction performance. To help the EDM community better understand the promising techniques of deep learning, we examine DKT alongside of two well-studied models for knowledge modeling, PFA and BKT. In addition to sharing a primer on the internal computational structures of DKT, we also report on potential issues that arise from data formatting. We take steps to reproduce the experiments of Deep Knowledge Tracing by implementing a DKT algorithm using Google’s TensorFlow framework; we also reproduce similar results on new datasets. We determine that the DKT findings don’t hold an overall edge when compared to the PFA model, when applied to properly prepared datasets that are limited to original (i.e. non-help) questions. More importantly, during the investigation of DKT, we not only discovered a data quality issue in a public available data set, but we also detected a vulnerability of DKT when handling multiple skill sequences.

In The 9th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2016)